This article serves as an announcement for glsl-0.13.

I’ve been working on glsl-0.13 for a few days now since my previous blog entry about adding pest to glsl – and no, the current code is not pest-based, it’s still good old nom. Lately, I’ve been wanting to enhance my glsl-quasiquote crate to add variable interpolation. I think I will dedicate a whole article to variable interpolation in GLSL because it’s actually tricky to get done right – without duplicating a whole parser or introducing problematic code with pest (see my last article).

Since I’m not a programmer who solves problems that don’t exist, I have problems to get resolved in other crates and binary projects of mine (mostly demoscene and demoscene tooling). However, I’ve been spending days solving those problems because they’re not related to demoscene only: pretty much anyone who would like to cope with shaders might be interested.

The glsl crate prior to 0.13

The glsl crate provides you with:

glsl-0.13 comes with several new features and enhancements to partially fix those points that I will explain in this blog entry.

The new features!

First, let’s talk about contribution. I received a contribution (both an issue and a PR, how amazing!) from @JDemler about the #define preprocessor pragma. Those were not taken into account so far and he provided the fix to add them! As for all other pragmas, those have to lay in the global scope – they’re not expected to be found in function bodies, for instance.

Thanks for your contribution! :)

Then, a lot of work has been done around the glsl::syntax module. This module contains all the AST types and some methods were added to, for instance, create functions, variable declarations, if-else blocks, etc. Those functions were made the most general as possible and heavily depend on From / Into, allowing for very short oneliners to create complex AST nodes. The best example for this is the Statement::declare_var that declares a new variable as a Statement. Most of the inner AST nodes won’t ever be needed in the public interface, so those functions hide them from you and give you the easy way to build bigger nodes.

There is an example below that uses Statement::declare_var. Keep on reading! :)

Not all AST nodes have helper methods for construction. The good thing is that adding a new function shouldn’t be a breaking change, so I’ll keep adding them as needed – if you have a specific need for one, feel free to open an issue, I will make the change. That might be surprising but since I haven’t witnessed lots of people using the crate yet, I don’t implement what I don’t need yet – but as soon as someone tells me they need something, either I immediately review the PR, or plan some time to make the patch myself.

Finally, the biggest feature which will be explained in further details in this blog post: AST visitors. AST visitors are the way I imagined would be the best to traverse an AST in order to mutate some nodes, all the nodes, filter, query information, etc. It’s like lenses for glsl! – but trust me: it’s way lighter! :D

Visiting ASTs

AST visitors solve a problem I had when implementing a specific feature in spectra. I needed to be able to change all the references to a given identifier in all the AST at once. Either the identifier is used in an expression assigned to a new variable, returned from a function or passed as argument to a function, I needed to catch that identifier… and change its name.

That was quite of a desperate challenge without a proper solution. Imagine: I would have to write the code to change the identifier myself and… find ALL the places where identifiers might appear in any AST. This is possible, but that would drive many developers mad – especially whevener the glsl crate changes.

So I came up with a better solution. I will not drop you a technical term and have you read Wikipedia, I would dislike that. I will just explain from bottom up why it’s designed this way and why I think it’s the best solution.

Visiting summarized

The idea is that pattern-matching on an identifier might appear in several places in an AST. So whatever solution we choose, we will have to find all those spots and call a function that states:

Hey there. Here is an Identifier. I give you a &mut Identifier so that you can change it.

An Identifier is an AST (a really simple one, but still is). So you might want to implement that function on Identifier… but what happens when your AST is an Expr, and that expr is a variable – that is, Expr::Var(identifier_here)? You will want to implement your function on Expr also, then. And here you see that you need a trait, because, as said earlier, the AST is a type tree.

However, what trait? We could imagine implementing that trait only on AST types that have an Identifier as field or variant. But the most general AST node, TranslationUnit, is a non-empty list of ExternalDeclarations. If we want to visit that, we won’t be able to type match and pass down our function transforming identifiers.

We see that we will need to implement that trait for all AST types so that they can pass the function down the AST to a node that actually has an Identifier.

And since we’re doing it with Identifier, we might want to do it with any AST node. But if we do that, we cannot pass one single function anymore…

The Visitor

So you need an object that will be able to treat an Identifier… or a TranslationUnit, or anything AST. This is a bit boring to implement, but we need a trait that enables a type to visit any AST node:

trait Visitor {
  fn visit_identifier(&mut self, _: &mut Identifier);
  fn visit_translation_unit(&mut self, _: &mut TranslationUnit);
  // …

This is great, because if a type implements Visitor, it means that we can call visit_identifier on it if we have an Identifier! When we will be implementing our traversing function, we will just have to carry around a mutable reference to an object implementing Visitor, and call the right function depending on the AST node / type we are at!

We also use mutable references here so that we can also mutate information as we sink into the AST. This might be very useful to know at which block depth we are at, or if we’re in a function’s body, etc.

Something important with that trait though: the current implementation (from this article) would be very boring to implement, because it has a lot of visit_* methods. What if we’re only interested in Identifier? We don’t want to have to implement visit_translation_unit because we don’t care.

A simple fix to that is to give all those visit_* methods a default implementation… that does nothing.

trait Visitor {
  fn visit_identifier(&mut self, _: &mut Identifier) {}
  fn visit_translation_unit(&mut self, _: &mut TranslationUnit) {}
  // …

Let’s try it!

struct ReplaceIdentifier<'a> {
  replacement: &'a str

impl<'a> Visitor for ReplaceIdentifier<'a> {
  fn visit_identifier(&mut self, ident: &mut Identifier) {
    *ident = self.replacement.clone().into()

And that’s all! We now have a visitor that can be used to traverse any AST and change any Identifier to what we have set. For instance:

let mut ast = …;
let mut visitor = ReplaceIdentifier { replacement: "foobar" }

// wait, how do we pass the visitor to the AST here?

Argh, we’re still missing something!

Hosting visitors

We need a visit function, like:

fn visit<V>(ast: &mut TranslationUnit, visitor: &mut V) where V: Visitor

So let’s write it!

fn visit<V>(ast: &mut TranslationUnit, visitor: &mut V) where V: Visitor {
  for external_decl in ast {
    // ah.

We cannot call visit again on ExternalDeclaration. Seems like we need another trait! :D

trait Host {
  fn visit<V>(&mut Self, visitor: &mut V) where V: Visitor;

Here, a type that implements Host means that it can call a Visitor on itself, and might pass it down to children AST if any. Since we’re going to implement Host for all our AST types, we will be able to do something like this:

impl Host for TranslationUnit {
  fn visit<V>(&mut Self, visitor: &mut V) where V: Visitor {
    visitor.visit_translation_unit(self); // first, we have the visitor visit the AST node

    // then, for all children, we pass down the visitor!
    for external_decl in self {

And here we go. We are able to pass down the visitor, that will be called for each node. If you have provided an implementation for a given visit_*, it will get invoked, otherwise, the default implementation will fire – and it does nothing.

A simple optimization can be done, here. Since you might know that you’re done at a given level regarding your visitor, we could add a way to make a Host stop visiting and go any deeper. For this, we introduce a simple enum:

enum Visit {
  Children, // keep visiting children
  Parent // stop visiting, go back to parent

And we change all the Visitor methods to return a Visit. That will give us the information we need when implementing Host::visit now:

impl Host for TranslationUnit {
  fn visit<V>(&mut Self, visitor: &mut V) where V: Visitor {
    let visit = visitor.visit_translation_unit(self); // first, we have the visitor visit the AST node

    if visit == Visit::Children {
      // then, for all children, we pass down the visitor!
      for external_decl in self {

We also need to change the default implementation of the visit_* methods. My choice was to have them return Visit::Children by default, because I think it’s a saner default – if people don’t want to go any deeper in the AST, they will just have to dummy-implement the right method.

And we are done! The actual implementation is a bit more complex than that but is really really close to what is described in this article. I’ll give you the example from the official documentation so that can you can see how it’s really used:

use glsl::syntax::{CompoundStatement, Expr, SingleDeclaration, Statement, TypeSpecifierNonArray};
use glsl::visitor::{Host, Visit, Visitor};
use std::iter::FromIterator;

let decl0 = Statement::declare_var(

let decl1 = Statement::declare_var(

let decl2 = Statement::declare_var(

let mut compound = CompoundStatement::from_iter(vec![decl0, decl1, decl2]);

// our visitor that will count the number of variables it saw
struct Counter {
  var_nb: usize

impl Visitor for Counter {
  // we are only interested in single declaration with a name
  fn visit_single_declaration(&mut self, declaration: &mut SingleDeclaration) -> Visit {
    if {
      self.var_nb += 1;

    // do not go deeper

let mut counter = Counter { var_nb: 0 };
compound.visit(&mut counter);
assert_eq!(counter.var_nb, 3);

Future work

The current state of Visitor is great but there is a drawback: your AST has to be mutable. You might want to only traverse it read-only but have your visitor mutated. I might then modify slightly the Visitor trait and Host one with Host::visit_mut if I think it’s needed.

Feel free to experiment around. Next work planned for glsl – besides contributions – quasiquoting variable interpolation.

Keep the vibes!

↑ glsl-0.13 and its visitor pattern
glsl, visitor, ast
Thu Nov 22 04:20:00 2018 UTC